Vittoriano, Rome

ROME (ROMA)

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Falling under the tutelage of the Dukes of Spoleto, who intervened by defending the City after the Saracene raid (846), Rome was continually troubled by feuds between the nobility and the clergy (9th-10th Centuries). All in all, notwithstanding imperial attempts, the aristocracy continued the feud for political supremacy, which brought about a division between the Papacy and the Emperor during the feud for investiture.
Occupied by Henry VIth (1084) who had to immediately abandon the City due to the arrival of the Normans of Roberto il Guiscardo, who pillaged the City, whilst the opposing population were massacred and banished. Once again prey to the feuds of the nobility, after the communal experiment of Arnaldo of Brescia (1144-55), the City returned to the hands of the Papacy (Pontificate) (1188). Renewed under Innocenzo III (1198-1216), the City experienced a period of particular cultural and economic splendour with the Jubilee of 1300 (the first in the history of the Church) promoted by Bonifacio VIII. But the political feuds and decline recommenced with the capture of the Avignonese (1309-77) despite the efforts of Cola di Rienzo (1347; 1353-54) to restore order by leading the City back under the protection of the Emperor. The Plague of 1348 and earthquake of 1349 devastated the City and depopulated it until the beginning of the 15th Century. After the return of Pontificate Gregorio XI of Avignone, the City began to reassume the role of capital of the State of the Church, under Martino V.

Despite the pillage of the lanzichenecchi or Imperial mercenary troops (1527), the City began its rise during the 16th Century which transformed it into one of the major artistic and cultural centres in the world, whilst the Papal authority was consolidated after the ecumenical council of Trento (1545-63) and the beginning of the counter-reformation. At the threshold of the Pontificate, succession of members of the powerful aristocracy was orderly, whilst State territory amplified with the acquisition of Ferrara (1598) and Urbino (1631).

Prosperity and balance proceeded, apart from a brief moment during the Spanish war of succession (1701-14), until the French occupation in 1808, following the attempts of revolt of the neighbouring Giocobini. Returned to the Pope, it was reoccupied by the French (1809) who tried to reorganize the administrative and economic markets, whilst Pope Pio VII was forced into exile to Savona. After the fall of Napoleon (1814) and the Restoration (1815), the first Carbonare Associations were active in the City and in legation. In 1849, after the escape of Pio IX to Gaeta, G. Mazzini constituted the Roman Republic, which had fallen due the intervention of the French Army. French protection delayed Rome being occupied and its annexation to the New Kindom of Italy. After the attempts of the Garibaldini of Aspromonte (1862) and Mentana (1867), it was taken by Italian troops on 20.9.1870 (breccia di porta Pia – breach in the wall), becoming the effective capital (in 1861 it was proclaimed symbolic capital). In 1871, the Court transferred its residence to the Quirinale.

During the years between the end of the 19th Century and the beginning of the 20th Century, there was a rapid development of the City, characterized by speculative construction, subjected to the brief experience of a committee led by E. Nathan (1907-13) who introduced the town planning. After the 1st World War, it became the centre for attempts of a Fascist reign (March on Rome, 28.10.1922) which took B. Mussolini into power. During the Fascist regime the City suffered grand demolishment, needed to celebrate the capital of the Empire. During the Second World War, the City was occupied by the Germans (September 1943) and finally liberated (4.6.1944). After the war, a phenomenal incivility of vast areas of central-southern Italy accentuated, which was also accompanied by foolish political town planning carried out by the local administration.

Rome History:  << previous | PAGE 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

ROME
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ART TRAVEL LINK - SELECTED WEB SITES

B&B Buonarroti - Basilica di S. Maria Maggiore in Rome B&B Buonarroti - www.buonarrotihome.com
Bed & Breakfast nearby Piazza Vittorio and Basilica of S. Maria Maggiore. Comfortable rooms and interesting offers...
[<< Click on the pic to read the B&B's description]
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Ares Rooms - Basilica di S. Maria Maggiore in Rome Ares Rooms - www.aresrooms.com
Friendly B&B located close to the Basilica of S. Maria Maggiore. Cheap and elegant rooms with private bathroom...
[<< Click on the pic to read the B&B's description]
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b&b Monti House - near Roman Forums Monti House - www.montihouse.com
Cozy and comfortable b&b inside Rione Monti, close to Roan Forums and Colosseum. Cheap rooms with air conditioning and private bathroom...
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B&B City House - near the  Pantheon City House - www.pantheonhouse.com
B&B elegantly furnished only few steps far from the Pantheon and Piazza Navona inside the historica centre of Rome. Rooms with private bathroom and all facilities...
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B&B Il Sogno - inside Trastevere B&B Il Sogno - www.ilsognoditrastevere.com
New bed & breakfast offering comfortable rooms with private bathroom located inside the characteristical Trastevere district. Very well connected with public transports...
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Apartments for rentals in Rome - www.romecityapartments.com
It offers a wide range of apartments in Rome Italy. A good alternative to 3 and 4 stars hotels having also the possibility to relax cooking...
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In Rome Today - Guide of Rome - http://www.inrometoday.it
Rome Web Guide to discover museums and exhibitions, hotels and restaurants.
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Rome Booky - Apartments in Rome - http://www.romebooky.com
Apartments and B&Bs ready for short rental period in all the districts of Rome: secure on line bookings.
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Charming Hotels in Rome Italy - http://www.inromehotels.com
Rome Hotels Directory: choose your hotel, B&B and apartment in Rome by location, fee or category: secure bookings.

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