(Dionysius the Younger), Dionysius’s I (Dionysius the
Elder) son, succeeded him in (367 BC) and who had for a long
time had clashes with his uncle Dione, and
whom he defeated and in 357 BC, exiling him
together with his brother Ipparino. The Callippo tyrants followed
(354 BC), who killed Dione, then Ipparino (353 BC), killed
by the populous, and who was succeeded by his brother Niseo
(351 BC), then exiled by Dionysius II.
The tug-of-war for power ended in 347 BC,
when Timoleonte arrived from the motherland
City of Corinth, and who after having conquered the City,
initiated a programme of urban town-planning and political
reform by destroying the fortress and proclaiming
a democracy based on an Athenian role model.
After twenty years of oligarchical governing
(336-316 BC) conducted by Sosistrato, Agatocle
came to power and waged war on the Carthaginians, but was
defeated in the first Battle of Imera (311
BC), and then on African ground, after having tried
to take Carthage. On his death (289 BC), a period of anarchy
and civil struggles followed, culminating in an attack by
the Carthaginians. The citizens then called for help from
Pirro, King of Epiro (278 BC)
and brother-in-law to Agatocle, who resisted in the City until
the ascension of Ierone II, his commander.
Initially adverse to the Romans, it changed politics and became
an ally of Rome, in this way guaranteeing 50 years of peace
From 240 BC, he wanted his son Gelone
II to rule by his side, but he died shortly before
he did. During his reign of Syracuse, many monuments were
embellished, amongst which the Ara of Lerone,
an immense altar used for public sacrifice.
In 216 BC, Geronimo, son
of Gelone II, came to power. He was responsible for the alliance
with the Romans and therefore the successive siege and fall
of the City by the hand of the Consul Marco Claudio
Marcello. The City courageously defended itself,
also by utilising the famous mirrors of Archimedes,
who was killed by a Roman soldier.
Syracuse then lost its importance
and was stripped of all its works of art at the hands of Verre.