Campo dei Miracoli - Pisa

PISA

Pisa, is still famous today, not only for its art, but also as a main University seat (University of 1343 and Scuola Normale Superiore (Normal Secondary School), purposely built by Napoleon in 1813) probably founded by the Liguri, it then became an Etruscan centre (4th Century BC), and subsequently occupied by the Romans and instituted as a colony (179 BC), then finally a Municipality (89 BC).
Thanks to the activation of the port (already active during the Imperial era) it took on a relevant role of a commercial centre. During the high medieval period it became a free City (10th Century), promoter of a Maritime Code (Consuetudinary of the Sea, 1075) and therefore a Free Council (1081). Active during the 1st Crusades (1096-99), it created a vast network of Empires and ports of call in the Tirreno and Levante. In conflict with Genoa for supremacy as a Maritime Republic, it fell into decline due to the defeats suffered (Battle of the Meloria, 1284). Disturbed by the feuds between nobility factions (19th Century) and by the economic crisis (Loss of the Sardi dominions, 1326), it fell under Visconti domination (1399-1402) and therefore, also that of the Florentines. After an interment of the port (16th Century), it developed as a cultural centre (Galilean Schools).

From a historical/religious point of view, Pisa was important because it developed some Councils, although they weren’t recognised as Ecumenical Councils. The first (1135), was convened by Innocenzo II to make headway against the schism of Anacleto II. The second (25.3-7.8.1409) was an attempt by a few cardinals to bring back the great schism of the Occident or West: Pope Gregorio XII and Pope, Benedetto XIII from Avignon, were dismissed and Alessandro V was elected; the attempt failed because the two popes did not accept the deposition. The third, known as the “Conciliabolo of Pisa,” (“Conventicle of Pisa”), was convened in 1511 by Luigi XII for France, in an attempt to oppose Pope Giulio II, who replied by convening the 5th Lateranense Council (1512). This had very few adhesions and was transferred to Milan, Asti and folded in Lyon in 1512).

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PISA
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Tuscany region of Italy
Battistery - Pisa
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