Trieste, the main town of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, faces the gulf with the same name, and for its past and recent history, stands as a symbol of Italian vicissitudes. Today, it has found its role as a blooming commercial and touristic port, at the foot of the Carso, sheltered by the borders of Slovenia (diverse border crossings.)-
The commercial, assurance/insurance and industrial activities are notable and linked to the presence of the port – an important access point for traffic heading to Austria. It’s also a centre for sport activities, linked in particular to nautical sports, including the renowned “Barcolana,” which is held annually at the end of summer.

The history of the City is testimony to ancient origins: it became a Roman colony with the name of Tergeste, in the 1st Century BC, but was subsequently occupied by the Goths, Byzantines, Ostrogoths and Longobards. Autonomous since 948, and a council from 1060, it passed to Venezia in 1202 and in 1328 became Austrian territory under the crown of the Hapsburgs, in this way initiating its historical role as the sea route for the City of Vienna. Tormented by internal conflicts and also by the Venetian and Istrian populations, it saw a decline in its economy at the beginning of the 18th Century, when it became a French port, once again taking up its function as a main sea route for the Hapsburg Empire. Despite short periods of French occupation, during the Napoleonic era, it remained Austrian territory until the end of 1918, when it was annexed to Italy. From 1943 to 1945, during the course of the last periods of the Second World War, it was occupied by the Germans who instigated some repression against the newly organized resistance organizations and against the Jewish population by installing the only Nazi extermination camp, situated just outside the City. It was eventually reached and liberated, by both the Yugoslavian partisans (1.5.1945) and Anglo-American troops (2.5.1945), which battled against each other for 40 days, in an attempt to assume control of the City, until finally, the Yugoslavians, withdrew. Based on the inter-alliance agreement and the subsequent Peace Treaty (Paris 10.2.1947), it was instituted as a Free Territory of Trieste, which included the City and a restricted band of inland, with the hypothesis that it would be governed by a representation from the ONU. Until an agreement regarding the form of said governor was reached, the territory was divided into two: area A, governed by the Anglo-Americans and area B, governed by the Yugoslavians. The situation determined a long contention which was finally resolved by the London agreements (6.10.1954), which stated that the Territory ceased to exist and the areas which they had constituted, in practice were assigned respectively to Italy (zone A) and Yugoslavia (zone B). On 31.1.1963, zone A was annexed to the Neo-Constituted region of Fruili-Venezia Giulia and Trieste became its main town. Subsequent Italo-Yugoslavian di Osimo agreements (10.11.1975), officially and definitively sanctioned said situation.

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