Roman Forum, view



Archaeological finds testify the presence of settlements on the Palatino hills, as early as the middle of the 8th Century BC. Little by little, the Roman community suffered change under the Sabina, Etruscan and Greek civilizations. The legend of a sort around the foundation of Rome on the Palatino (753 BC legend of Romolo and Remo) testifies a basis of real events: during the era of the Monarchy (8th-509 BC) battles and alliances with the Sabina race and Etruscans, allowed the city’s formation due to the fact of fusion of villages spread out in the hills surround Palatino.

During the Monarchical period, next to the royal figure, also depositary of religious powers, and that which in tradition appears to be chosen elective principles, affirmed the most influential Pontificate council. The civilization was constituted around the socio-economic dialectics between the gentilitial groups who owned land and the populace, who were subjected to a customer rapport with them. The armed population was made up of an assembly of the curiate comitia.

During the changes from the Monarchy to the Republic, which was determined in the precincts of the Etruscan power in Italy, the changeover occurred by elaborating a military and political system based on census, which substituted that of the nobility. By use of a gradual process, the aristocrats gave life to a form of government based on collegiate magistracy (consul, censor) and on the senate, which they fully controlled with the changing social-political needs of the City, by then in phase of expansion. Parallel to the war periods against the surrounding populations, social and political contrasts began to develop inside the City between the nobility and the populace. The Latin’s were defeated (499 BC), allowing an alliance to be put in place (foedus Cassianum, 493 BC), the Republic consolidated its own juridical-political assets (populace tribunal, 12th table laws, (duodecim tabularum leges), 451 BC; Canuleia laws, 445 BC; institutes of the Censor, 443 BC). The wars of conquest continued with the taking of Fidene (426 BC), the conflict against the Sanniti (Wars of the Sanniti, 343-341 BC; 326-304 BC; 298-290 BC) and against the Etruscans (310 BC). The conquest of the Sannio allowed Rome to connect with Magna Grecia (Greater Greece). In accordance with the Italian population (treaty with the Lucani, 299 BC; the Turi, 282 BC), the war against Taranto happened soon after, aided by the Epirus King Pirro. At the end of this war, Rome became ruler of Meridianal Italy (from Taranto, 272 BC; and from Reggio, 270 BC). The Roman advancement continued, notwithstanding the resistance put up by the Carthaginians (The Punic Wars, 264-241 BC; 218-201 BC): where the following were conquered: Corsica (259 BC), Sicily (241 BC), Sardinia (238 BC) and a vast province in the Iberian peninsula (226 BC). In this way, Rome began her own expansion on the Padanan Plains (200 BC), in the Illirico area and Macedonia (196 BC). The advancement into the Oriente followed with the Siriaca war (193-188 BC) and the reduction of Macedonia and Greece into provinces (conquest of Corinth, 146 BC): contemporarily the destruction of Cartagine (146 BC) saw the beginning of the conquest of the African coasts.

Rome History:   PAGE 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | next >>

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Lazio (Latium) region of Italy

Titus' Arch, Roman Forum in Rome

Vestali's House, Roman Forum in Rome

Rostra_ Antonio's speech after Cesare's murder



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